Advantages of Registration of documetns: Civil Law


Introduction:-  If registration of documents is not made, the process of verification and certification of title becomes difficult.  Registration of documents reduces disputes and litigations to a large extent. Section 17 of the Registration Act, 1908 which makes a deed of conveyance compulsorily registrable. In this artilce, I intend to bring to light the landmark ruling of the Hon’ble Supreme Court in Suraj Lamp & Industries Pvt Ltd‘s case (infra) to know the advantages of registration of documents.

Documents of which registration is compulsory:-

Section 17 – Documents of which registration is compulsory– (1) The following documents shall be registered, namely:– xxxxx
(b) other non-testamentary instruments which purport or operate to create, declare, assign, limit or extinguish, whether in present or in future, any right, title or interest, whether vested or contingent, of the value of one hundred rupees and upwards, to or in immovable property.
xxxxx
(1A) The documents containing contracts to transfer for consideration, any immovable property for the purpose of section 53A of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882 (4 of 1882) shall be registered if they have been executed on or after the commencement of the Registration and Other Related laws (Amendment) Act, 2001 and if such documents are not registered on or after such commencement, then, they shall have no effect for the purposes of the said section 53A.
The Supreme Court in an order passed in Suraj Lamp & Industries Pvt Ltd. Vs. State of Haryana & Another discussed the ill effects of transfer of property by means of a General Power of Attorney / Will / Agreement to Sell, and the practical problems the same is causing wherein the Hon’ble Apex Court observed as follows:-
Advantages of Registration 
10. In the earlier order dated 15.5.2009, the objects and benefits of registration were explained and we extract them for ready reference :
“The Registration Act, 1908, was enacted with the intention of providing orderliness, discipline and public notice in regard to transactions relating to immovable property and protection from fraud and forgery of documents of transfer. This is achieved by requiring compulsory registration of certain types of documents and providing for consequences of non-registration. Section 17 of the Registration Act clearly provides that any document (other than testamentary instruments) which purports or operates to create, declare, assign, limit or extinguish whether in present or in future “any right, title or interest” whether vested or contingent of the value of Rs. 100 and upwards to or in immovable property. Section 49 of the said Act provides that no document required by Section 17 to be registered shall, affect any immovable property comprised therein or received as evidence of any transaction affected such property, unless it has been registered. Registration of a document gives notice to the world that such a document has been executed. Registration provides safety and security to transactions relating to immovable property, even if the document is lost or destroyed. It gives publicity and public exposure to documents thereby preventing forgeries and frauds in regard to transactions and execution of documents. Registration provides information to people who may deal with a property, as to the nature and extent of the rights which persons may have, affecting that property. In other words, it enables people to find out whether any particular property with which they are concerned, has been subjected to any legal obligation or liability and who is or are the person/s presently having right, title, and interest in the property. It gives solemnity of form and perpetuate documents which are of legal importance or relevance by recording them, where people may see the record and enquire and ascertain what the particulars are and as far as land is concerned what obligations exist with regard to them. It ensures that every person dealing with immovable property can rely with confidence upon the statements contained in the registers (maintained under the said Act) as a full and complete account of all transactions by which the title to the property may be affected and secure extracts/copies duly certified.” 
Registration of documents makes the process of verification and certification of title easier and simpler. It reduces disputes and litigations to a large extent.
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